Works in Progress
International Patenting, Technology Gaps, and Patent Rights, Review of Economics and Institutions , Vol. 4, No. 1, Winter 2013, Article 3.
On a Dynamic Panel Analysis of RD and Mergers, International Journal of Applied Research in Business Administration and Economics , Vol. 1, Issue 3, July 2012, pp. 21 - 36. [Co-author: Ralph Sonenshine]
North-South Models of Intellectual Property Rights: An Empirical Critique, Review of World Economics , Vol. 148, No. 1, April 2012, pp. 151 - 180.
Impact of Horizontal Mergers on Research and Development: Evidence from U.S. Merger Challenges, Journal of Industry, Competition, and Trade , Vol. 12, 2012, pp. 143 - 167. [Co-author: Ralph Sonenshine]
Appropriate Intellectual Property Protection and Economic Growth in Countries at Different Levels of Development, Research Policy , Vol. 41, 2012, pp. 350 - 375 [Co-authors: Keun Lee, Yee K. Kim, and Kineung Choo]
The Copyright Dilemma: Copyright Systems, Innovation, and Economic Development, Journal of International Affairs , Fall/Winter 2010, Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 53 - 68.
On Patenting Costs, The WIPO Journal: Analysis of Intellectual Property Issues, Vol. 2, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 38 - 48.
International Patent Protection: 1960-2005, Research Policy , Vol. 37, Issue 4, 2008, pp. 761-766.
Patent Rights and Innovative Activity: Evidence from Firm and National Level Data, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 38, No. 6, 2007, pp. 878-900. [Co-author Brent Allred]
Influence of Patent Rights on Firm Innovation Investment in Ten Manufacturing Industries, Journal of International Management, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2007, pp. 91-109 [Co-author Brent Allred]
International Licensing and the Strengthening of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries, OECD Economic Studies, Vol. 40, 2005/1, pp. 7-48. [Co-author: Doug Lippoldt]
The Impact of Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights on Trade and Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries, OECD Papers: Special Issue on Trade Policy, Vol. 3, No. 11/294, 2003. [Co-author: Douglas Lippoldt]
Patent Rights and Economic Freedom: Friend or Foe, Journal of Private Enterprise, Vol. 18, No. 1, Fall 2002, pp. 84-121. Reprinted in Joshua Hall and Robert Lawson (eds.) Economic Freedom: Causes and Consequences, Nova Publishers, 2011.
Globalization, Patent Reform, and Patent Professional Services, Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society, Vol. 83, No. 5, May 2001, pp. 303-340.
Measuring Global Patent Protection, Fraser Forum, Fraser Institute, Vancouver, B.C., March 1999, pp. 4-7.
A Theoretical Model of Government Research and Growth, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 34, No 1, March 1998, pp. 51-67.
Determinants of Patent Rights: A Cross-National Study, Research Policy, Vol. 26, No. 3, October 1997, pp. 283-301. [Co-author: Juan Carlos Ginarte]
A Permanent Income Model of Public Consumption, Journal of Macroeconomics, Vol. 19, No. 4, Fall 1997, pp. 753-769.
How Stratified is the World? Openness and Development, Virginia Economic Journal, September 1997, pp. 59-66. [Co-author: David A. Brat]
Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Growth, Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 15, No. 3, July 1997, pp. 51-61. [Co-author: Juan Carlos Ginarte]
A Note on Innovation and Patents: Intertemporal Imitation-Risk Smoothing, Economics Letters, Vol. 54, No. 2, February 1997, pp. 185-189.
Cross-Country R&D and Growth: Variations on a Theme of Mankiw-Romer-Weil, Eastern Economic Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3, Summer 1996, pp. 345 - 354. [Co-author: David Brat]
Intellectual Property Rights in a North-South Context, Science Communications, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1996, pp. 379-387. [Co-author: Juan Carlos Ginarte]
International Spillovers of R&D and OECD Economic Growth, Economic Inquiry, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1995, pp. 571-591.
A Global Kuznets Curve?, Kyklos, Vol. 48, 1995, pp. 105-131. [Co-author: David Brat]
Adoption, Diffusion, and Public R&D, Journal of Economics and Finance, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1994, pp. 101-123.
Public Capital, Taxation, and Private Sector Productivity, Journal of Applied Economics and Policy (formerly the Kentucky Journal of Economics and Business), Vol. 12, 1993, pp. 1-13.
On a Model of Endogenous Government Behavior, National Social Sciences Perspectives Journal, Conference Proceedings, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1993, pp. 230-240.
Speculative Attacks in Argentina: A Tobit Analysis of the Tablita Period 1979-1981, Southwestern Journal of Economic Abstracts, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1992, pp. 3-30.
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Technology Transfer and the Economic Implications of the Strengthening of Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries, in Bronwyn Hall, Sanghoon Ahn, and Keun Lee (eds.), Intellectual Property Rights for Economic Development, Edward Elgar Publishers, forthcoming. [Co-author: Douglas Lippoldt]
Technology Trade and NAFTA, in Albert Tavidze (ed.), Progress in Economics Research, Volume 25, Chapter 2, Nova Publishers, 2011, pp. 51-90.
Intellectual Property Rights and Foreign Direct Investment: Lessons for Central America, in Rashmi Shankar (ed.), Getting the Most Out of Central America's Free Trade Agreements, Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2011, pp. 275–308.
Open Development: Is the ‘Open Source’ Analogy Relevant to Biotechnology, in David Castle (ed.), The Role of Intellectual Property Rights in Biotechnology Innovation, Edward Elgar Publishers, 2010, pp. 225-251. [Coauthor: Alan G. Isaac]
Intellectual Property Rights and International Innovation, in Keith Maskus (ed.), Frontiers of Economics and Globalization, Vol. 1, Handbook Series, Elsevier Science, 2008, pp. 289-327.
Innovation and Economic Dynamics, in Wei-Bin Zhang (ed.), Mathematical Models in Economics: Encylopedia of Life Support Sciences, UNESCO, United Nations, 2007.
From Theory to Time Series, in Peter Hingley and Marc Nicolas (eds.), Forecasting Innovations: Methods for Predicting Numbers of Patent Filings, Springer-Verlag, 2006, pp. 27-39. [Co-author: Peter Hingley]
International Patenting at the European Patent Office: Aggregate, Sectoral, and Family Filings, in Peter Hingley and Marc Nicolas (eds.), Forecasting Innovations: Methods for Predicting Numbers of Patent Filings, Springer-Verlag, 2006, pp. 125-158.
Do Intellectual Property Rights Stimulate R&D and Productivity Growth? Evidence from Cross-National and Manufacturing Industry Data, in Jon Putnam (ed.), Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in the Knowledge-Based Economy, Chapter 9, Ottawa, Industry Canada, 2005, pp. 9-1 - 9-51
On Intellectual Property Rights: Patents vs. Free and Open Development, in Enrico Colombatto (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Property Rights, Edward Elgar Publishers, 2004, pp. 383-413. [Co-author: Alan Isaac]
Property Rights in the New Economy, in Derek C. Jones (ed.), New Economy Handbook,, New York, Academic Press, August 2003, pp. 841-863.
Index of Patent Rights, 2000 Update, in James Gwartney and Robert Lawson (eds.), Economic Freedom of the World Annual Report 2002,, Chapter 2, Fraser Institute, Vancouver, B.C., pp. 33-42. [Co-author: Smita Wagh]
Intellectual Property and Patent Regimes, in James Gwartney and Robert Lawson (eds.), Economic Freedom of the World Annual Report 2001,, Chapter 4, Fraser Institute, Vancouver, B.C., pp. 101-118.
Impact of the International Patent System on Productivity and Technology Diffusion, in Owen Lippert (ed.), Competitive Strategies for Intellectual Property Protection,, Chapter 2, Fraser Institute, Vancouver, B.C., 1999, pp. 47-72.
Reducing Global Patenting Costs, in American Intellectual Property Law Association (ed.), Fourth International Symposium on Patent Cost Containment,, AIPLA, Washington, D.C., July, 1999.
Patent Systems in APEC: Role in Nontariff Trade Barriers and Strategic Trade Policy, in U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC), Economic Implications of Liberalizing APEC Tariff and Nontariff Barriers to Trade, Publication, Publication 3101, Government Printing Office, April 1998, pp. 6:1-6:25.
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Perspectives on Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Development Intellectual Property, Trade and Development, co-hosted by Washington College of Law, American University and Public Citizen, Washington, D.C., October 2012
Can IP Reform Promote Economic Well-Being? Trans-Atlantic Consumer Dialogue Meetings, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., Plenary Session, June 2012
Trips-Plus Provisions in Free-Trade Agreements (FTAs), Trans-Pacific Partnership Meetings, Dallas, TX, luncheon hosted by Public Citizen, May 2012 Slides
U.S.-European Union Convergence in Patent Law, Transatlantic Summit, Washington, D.C., panel organized by Science Business and the Federal Circuit Bar Association, May 2012
International Technology Transfer and Innovation, Conference on the Knowledge Economy and Role of Intellectual Property Rights, Cairo, Egypt, co-sponsored by the Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research and World Intellectual Property Organization, November 2011 Slides 1 Slides 2
Perspectives on the America Invents Act (AIA), Panel organized by the Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., September 2011
Exports and Licensing: Impact of Patent Rights, Science and Technology Policy Institute, Seoul, Korea, August 2011 Slides
Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) and China, U.S. International Trade Commission, Washington, D.C., November 2010 Slides
International Offshoring of R&D, American Society for Competitiveness, Vienna, Virginia, October 2010 Slides
Korean Model of Development, Panel organized by the Korean Economic Association and Korean Association for Political Science, Washington, D.C., June 2010
North-South Innovation, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey, April 2010 Slides
Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Rights, Conference on Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Development, Korea Development Institute, Seoul, Korea, February 2010 Slides
IPRs and Economic Development, Conference on Entrepreneurship, National Innovation Strategy, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Paris, France, November 2007 Slides
Trilateral Patent Statistics, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) Trilateral Meeting, Working Group on Patent Statistics, Washington, D.C., August 2007
Global Intellectual Property Reform, Panel organized by Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Washington, D.C., September 2006
Open Source and Biotechnology, Center for Intellectual Property Policy (CIPP) Workshop, Florence, Italy, October 2005 Slides
International Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Rights, Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM) Annual Meeting, Annapolis, MD, Plenary Session, June 2005 Slides
International Patenting Models and Forecasts of Filings at the EPO, European Patent Office Seminar, Munich Germany, December 2004 Handout
Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and Intellectual Property Rights, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Seminar, May 2003
Recent Developments in the World Trade Organization’s Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement, Panel organized by Center for Globalization, Yale University, New Haven, CT, April 2003
R&D Policy and Institutions in Latin America, Latin American Econometrics Society (LAMES) Conference, Sao Paolo, Brazil, July 2002
Global Intellectual Property Rights and Impacts, World Bank Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics, Washington, D.C., April 2002
R&D, Spillovers, and Intellectual Property Rights, Economic Freedom of the World Network (EFW) Conference, San Francisco, CA, October 2001
Intellectual Property Rights, R&D, and Productivity Growth, Conference co-sponsored by Industry Canada and the University of Toronto Law School, Toronto, Canada, May 2001
TRIPS (Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement) and Developing Countries, Panel organized by the International Intellectual Property Institute (IIPI), Washington, D.C., February 2001
Human Genome Project and Patenting, Panel organized by the Global Intellectual Property Project (GLIPP), School of International Service (SIS), American University, February 2001
New Economy and Internet Patenting, Chartered Institute of Patent Agents Conference, London, U.K., November 2000
International Intellectual Property Rights and Technology Gaps, Office of Harmonization for the Internal Market (OHIM) Conference, Alicante, Spain, March 2000
Are Patent Policies Trade-Related? Free Trade Areas of the Americas (FTAA) Meetings, Toronto, Canada, Session organized by the Fraser Institute, November 1999
Global Patenting Costs, Symposium co-hosted by the American Intellectual Property Law Association and International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys, Hague, Netherlands, July 1999
Intellectual Property Rights and Technology Diffusion, Conference on Law and Markets: Part I, co-hosted by the Instituto Libertad y Desarollo and the Fraser Institute, Santiago, Chile, April 1999
Patent Rights and Productivity in Latin America, Conference on Law and Markets: Part II, co-hosted by the Fundacion Republica and the Fraser Institute, Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 1999
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Center for Global Development, Commitment to Development Index: Technology Component, 2012.
European Patent Office (EPO), Patent Family Statistics, 2003; Forecasting Models of International Patent Filings, 2004-2005.
Industry Canada, Copyright Research: Feasibility Study, 2009.
International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys (FICPI), Patent Harmonization, Legal Professional Fees, and Entry, 2000.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Working Group on Innovation and Technology Policy, Issues in International Patenting, 1997.
U.S. Department of Energy, Role of Government Research Labs and Commercialization of Publicly Funded Innovations, 1993.
World Bank, Latin America and Caribbean Division, Institutions and Incentives for R&D: Implications for L.A.C. Economies, 2002.
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Key Implications of the Global Economic Environment for PCT Filings: A Survey of the Issues, 1999. [Coauthors: Peter Grindley and Murray Smith]
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Demographic Trends, EU Enlargement, and Economic Growth [Co-author: Zamira Simkins]
Does the WTO Matter? Draft
European Innovation and Technology Diffusion: Evidence from Patenting Data Draft
Export Growth and the Level of Technology under Intellectual Property Rights: A Comparative Analysis of Developed and Developing Countries [Co-authors: Keun Lee and Wonkyu Shin]
Fiscal Externalities in an Open Economy Draft
Indexes of International Copyright and Trademark Protection Data on Copy; Data on Tmark [Co-author: Tad Reynolds]
Marriage and Divorce: Value of Waiting Draft
Patent Valuation using International Patent Family Sizes [Co-author: Francois Kabore]
R&D, Spillovers, and Intellectual Property Rights Draft
There will be Exports and Licensing: The Effects of Patent Rights on Firm Sales Draft [Co-author: Kristie Briggs]
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